Due Friday, April 15, at 5:59PM.
Extended to Sunday, April 17, at 11:59PM.
The purpose of this assignment is to help you get acquainted with pure object-oriented programming. The assignment is divided into two parts.
The uSmalltalk interpreter for the course is in
To help with debugging, you can instruct the interpreter to emit a trace of message
sends and answers to depth
n by entering:
(val &trace n)
Useful sources are in the git repository, which you can clone by
git clone linux.cs.tufts.edu:/comp/105/build-prove-compare
examples directory in the repository includes
copies of the initial basis, collection classes, financial history,
and other examples from the textbook.
Working on your own, please solve Exercise 9 on page 674 and Exercise 29a on page 679 of Ramsey. These exercises are warm-ups designed to prepare you for the Bignum problems in the pair portion of the assignment.
9. Collection Protocols. Do Exercise 9 on page 674 of Ramsey.
Interfaces as Abstraction Barriers. Do
Exercise 29a on page 679 of Ramsey. When the problem says
Integer classes", the text means to
revise one or both of these classes or define a related class.
To solve these problems, you shouldn't need to add or change more than 10 lines of code in total.
For these problems, you may work with a partner. Please solve Exercise 31 on page 680, Exercise 32 on page 682, and Exercise 33 on page 683 of Ramsey, and Exercise T below. You do not need to implement long division.
Sometimes you want to do computations that
require more precision than you have available in a machine word.
Full Scheme, Smalltalk, and Icon all provide ``bignums.'' These are
integer implementations that automatically expand to as much precision
as you need. Because of their dynamic-typing discipline, these
languages make the transition transparently—you can't easily
tell when you're using native machine integers and when you're using
bignums. In this portion of the homework, you will implement infinite
precision natural numbers, use these natural numbers to define
infinite precision integers, and then modify the built-in
SmallInteger class so that operations seemlessly roll over to
infinite precision when overflows occur.
Implementing arbitrary precision natural numbers.
Do Exercise 31 on page 680 of Ramsey.
The text of the exercise contains significant information about how to implement
the required arbitrary-precision arithmetic.
We recommend you choose base b = 10 to represent your
The course solution for the
Natural class is over 100 lines of uSmalltalk code.
32. Implementing arbitrary precision integers. Do Exercise 32 on page 682 of Ramsey. The course solution for the large integer classes are 22 lines apiece.
SmallInteger so that operations that overflow roll over to infinite precision.
Do Exercise 33 on page 683 of Ramsey.
(class SmallInteger SmallInteger ...modifications... )
modifies the existing class
SmallInteger according to the code
...modifications.... You should use this idiom to make your
changes. Note that once you enter this code into the
interpreter, you have changed the the basic arithmetic operations
that the system uses internally. If you have bugs in
your code, the system will behave erratically. At this point, you
should restart your interpreter and fix your bugs before
SmallInteger class. The modifications to the
SmallInteger class in the course solution are about
T. Testing Bignums. Write a test for bignums and explain in comments what way the submitted test is superior to the factorial test. The question you should ask yourself devising your test is: What will constitute an adequate test of bignums?
Your test file should be formatted as follows:
; Summary: .........
Your summary should be a simple English phrase that describes your test. Examples might be ``Ackermann's function of (1, 1),'' ``sequence of powers of 2,'' or ``combinations of +, *, and - on random numbers.''
Test105with a class method
runthat actually runs the test.
runmethod to the
Test105class, and nothing else. If the output is a single line, write a one-line comment. If the output takes multiple lines, put each line of output in a comment on its own line.
(run Test105)must take less than 2 CPU seconds to evaluate.
Your test file should not include any code that implements bignums.
Here is a trivial example:
<example bigtests.smt>= ; Comments explaining why test is good. ; Summary: 10 to the tenth power (class Test105 Object () (class-method run () (locals n 10-to-the-n) (set n 0) (set 10-to-the-n 1) (whileTrue: [(< n 10)] [(set n (+ n 1)) (set 10-to-the-n (* 10 10-to-the-n))]) 10-to-the-n) ) ; 10000000000
If this test is run in an unmodified interpreter, it breaks with an arithmetic overflow and a stack trace.
A key problem in the representation of integers is the choice of the
Today's hardware supports
b = 2 and sometimes
b = 10, but when we
want bignums, the choice of
hard to make in the general case:
b= 10, then converting to decimal representation is trivial, but storing bignums requires lots of memory.
bis, the less memory is required, and the more efficient everything is.
bis a power of 10, converting to decimal is relatively easy and is very efficient. Otherwise it requires (possibly long) division.
(b-1) * (b-1)fits in a machine word, than you can implement multiplication in high-level languages without difficulty. (Serious implementations pick the largest
a[i]is guaranteed to fit in a machine word, e.g.,
2^64on modern machines. Unfortunately, to work with such large values of
brequires special machine instructions to support ``add with carry'' and 128-bit multiply, so serious implementations have to be written in assembly language.)
bis a power of 2, bit-shift can be very efficient, but conversion to decimal is expensive. Fast bit-shift can be important in cryptographic and communications applications.
If you want signed integers, there are more choices:
Knuth volume 2 is
pretty informative about these topics.
For extra credit,
try the following variations on your implementation of class
baseand not any other code.) Measure the time needed to compute the first 50 factorials. Note both your measurements and your argument in your README file.
Because Smalltalk hides the representation from clients, a well-behaved client won't be affected by a change of base. If we wanted, we could take more serious measurements and pick the most efficient representation.
Remember that the private
decimal method must return a list
of decimal digits, even if base 10 is not what is used in
the representation. Suppress leading zeroes unless the value of
Natural is itself zero.
Implement long division for
Natural and for large integers.
If this changes your argument for the largest possible base, explain
how. This article by Per
Brinch Hansen describes how to implement long division.
Change the base to the largest reasonable base, not necessarily a
power of 10.
You will have to re-implement
decimal using long division.
Measure the time needed to compute and print the first 50 factorials.
Does the smaller number of digits recoup the higher cost of converting
Make sure comparisons work, even with mixed kinds of integers.
So for example, make sure comparisons such as
(< 5 (* 1000000 1000000)) produce sensible answers.
to keep track of the size of numbers, and measure the
space cost of the different bases.
Estimate the difference in garbage-collection overhead for computing
with the different bases, given a fixed-size heap.
You should submit three files:
finhist.smtshowing your solution to Exercise 9.
basis.smtshowing whatever changes you had to make to the initial basis to do Exercise 29a.
Please identify your solutions using conspicuous comments, e.g.,
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; Solution to Exercise Exercise 9 (class Array ... )
When you are ready, run submit105-small-solo to submit your work. Note you can run this script multiple times; we will grade the last submission.
You should submit three files:
bignum.smtshowing your solutions to Exercises 31, 32, and 33. This file must work with an unmodified
usmalltalkinterpreter. Therefore if you use results from Exercise 29a, or any other problem, you will need to duplicate those modifications in
bigtests.smtcontaining your solution to Exercise T.
When you are ready, run submit105-small-pair to submit your work. Note you can run this script multiple times; we will grade the last submission.
localProtocolmethods, which are defined on every class, as shown in Figure 12.6 on page 577. These class methods will return the methods that are defined in a class.
XP_adddoes add with carry.
XP_subdoes subtract with borrow.
z := z + x * y, which is useful, but is not what we want unless
zis zero initially.
Naturalis an immutable type. Your methods must not mutate existing natural numbers; you can mutate only a newly allocated number that you are sure has not been seen by any client.
To help you test your work, here is code that computes and prints factorials:
<fact.smt>= (define factorial (n) (if (strictlyPositive n) [(* n (value factorial (- n 1)))] )) (class Factorial Object () (classMethod printUpto: (limit) (locals n nfac) (begin (set n 1) (set nfac 1) (while [(<= n limit)] [(print n) (print #!) (print space) (print #=) (print space) (println nfac) (set n (+ n 1)) (set nfac (* n nfac))]))))
You might find it useful to test your implementation with the following table of factorials:
1! = 1 2! = 2 3! = 6 4! = 24 5! = 120 6! = 720 7! = 5040 8! = 40320 9! = 362880 10! = 3628800 11! = 39916800 12! = 479001600 13! = 6227020800 14! = 87178291200 15! = 1307674368000 16! = 20922789888000 17! = 355687428096000 18! = 6402373705728000 19! = 121645100408832000 20! = 2432902008176640000 21! = 51090942171709440000 22! = 1124000727777607680000 23! = 25852016738884976640000 24! = 620448401733239439360000 25! = 15511210043330985984000000
Be warned that this test by itself is inadequate. You will want other tests. Here is some advice on testing:
Naturalby generating a long, random string of digits, then computing the corresponding number using a combination of addition and multiplication by 10.
(set p n) ; p == n (set p (+ p p)) ; p == 2n (set p (+ p p)) ; p == 4n (set p (+ p n)) ; p == 5n (set p (+ p p)) ; p == 10n
This idea will test only your addition; if you have bugs there, fix them before you go on.
Listthat prints just the digits, with no spaces.
timesRepeat:method is defined on any integer.
If you want more effective tests of multiplication and so on,
compare your results with a working implementation of
The languages Scheme, Icon, and Haskell all provide such
(Be aware that the real Scheme
define syntax is slightly different
from what we use in uScheme.)
We recommend you use ghci on the command line; standard infix
If you want something more elaborate,
use Standard ML
of New Jersey (command sml),
which has an
IntInf module that implements bignums.
Here are some common mistakes to avoid:
All our usual expections for form, naming, and documentation apply. But in this assignment we will focus on structure and clarity.
• The base used for natural numbers appears in exactly one place, and all code that depends on it consults that place.
• Or, the base used for natural numbers appears in exactly one place, and code that depends on either consults that place or assumes that the base is some power of 10
• No matter how many bits are used to represent a machine integer, overflow is detected by using appropriate primitive methods, not by comparing against particular integers.
• Code uses method dispatch instead of conditionals.
• Mixed operations on different classes of numbers are implemented using double dispatch.
• Or, mixed operations on different classes of numbers are implemented by arranging for the classes to share a common protocol.
• Or, mixed operations on different classes of numbers are implemented by arranging for unconditional coercions.
• Code deals with exceptional or unusual conditions by passing a suitable
• Code achieves new functionality by reusing existing methods, e.g., by sending messages to
• Or, code achieves new functionality by adding new methods to old classes to respond to an existing protocol.
• An object's behavior is controlled by dispatching (or double dispatching) to an appropriate method of its class.
• The base used for natural numbers appears in exactly one place, but code that depends on it knows what it is, and that code will break if the base is changed in any way.
• Overflow is detected only by assuming the number of bits used to represent a machine integer, but the number of bits is explicit in the code.
• Code contains one avoidable conditional.
• Mixed operations on different classes of integers involve explicit conditionals.
• Code protects itself against exceptional or unusual conditions by using Booleans.
• Code contains methods that appear to have been copied and modified.
• An object's behavior is influenced by interrogating it to learn something about its class.
• The base used for natural numbers appears in multiple places.
• Overflow is detected only by assuming the number of bits used to represent a machine integer, and the number of bits is implicit in the value of some frightening decimal literal.
• Code contains more than one avoidable conditional.
• Mixed operations on different classes of integers are implemented by interrogating objects about their classes.
• Code copies methods instead of arranging to invoke the originals.
• Code contains case analysis or a conditional that depends on the class of an object.
• Course staff see no more code than is needed to solve the problem.
• Course staff see how the structure of the code follows from the structure of the problem.
• Course staff see somewhat more code than is needed to solve the problem.
• Course staff can relate the structure of the code to the structure of the problem, but there are parts they don't understand.
• Course staff roughly twice as much code as is needed to solve the problem.
• Course staff cannot follow the code and relate its structure to the structure of the problem.
• Private methods are documented with contracts.
• Or, private methods use exactly the contracts suggested in the bignums handout.
• Private methods are neither documented nor consistent with the bignums handout.
• Code that works with collections works with any
• Code that is supposed to works with all collections works only with some subclasses of collections.
Back to the class home page