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TR20105
Factorization Strategies for ThirdOrder Tensors 

Authors:  Kilmer, Misha E.; Martin, Carla D. 
Date:  August 25, 2010 
Pages:  20 
Download Formats:  [PDF] 
Operations with tensors, or multiway arrays, have become increasingly prevalent in recent years. Traditionally, tensors are represented or decomposed as a sum of rank1 outer products using either the CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) or the Tucker models, or some variation thereof. Such decompositions are motivated by specific applications where the goal is to find an approximate such representation for a given multiway array. The specifics of the approximate representation (such as how many terms to use in the sum, orthogonality constraints, etc.) depend on the application. In this paper, we explore an alternate representation of tensors which shows promise with respect to the tensor approximation problem. Reminiscent of matrix factorizations, we present a new factorization of a tensor as a product of tensors. To derive the new factorization, we define a closed multiplication operation between tensors. A major motivation for considering this new type of tensor multiplication is to devise new types of factorizations for tensors which can then be used in applications. Specifically, this new multiplication allows us to introduce concepts such as tensor transpose, inverse, and identity, which lead to the notion of an orthogonal tensor. The multiplication also gives rise to a linear operator, and the null space of the resulting operator is identified. We extend the concept of outer products of vectors to outer products of matrices. All derivations are presented for thirdorder tensors. However, they can be easily extended to the orderp (p > 3) case. We conclude with an application in image deblurring. 
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